Agreement of Paris
The president`s promise to renegotiate the international climate agreement has always been a smog screen, the oil industry has a red phone inside, and will Trump bring food trucks to Old Faithful? The agreement contains commitments from all countries to reduce their emissions and work together to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The agreement provides a way for developed countries to assist developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, while providing a framework for transparent monitoring and reporting on countries` climate goals. At the 2011 UNITED NATIONS Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was established with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for climate action from 2020 onwards. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  The goal of preventing what scientists consider dangerous and irreversible levels of climate change – achieved with warming of about 2°C compared to pre-industrial times – is at the heart of the agreement. Professor John Shepherd of the National Centre for Oceanography at the University of Southampton says the deal contains welcome aspirations, but few people know how difficult it will be to achieve the goals. The authors of the agreement have incorporated a timetable for withdrawal that President Trump must follow – to prevent it from irreparably harming our climate. The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Action Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and increased initiatives to reduce pollution. The Paris Agreement is an agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses mitigation, adaptation to greenhouse gas emissions and financing and was signed in 2016. The wording of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC at Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.
  As of February 2020, the 196 members of the UNFCCC had signed the agreement and 189 had acceded to it.  Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, the only major emitters are Iran and Turkey. If the US were to join the deal, it would technically have to have an NDC within 30 days. When the agreement is signed on the 5th. In October 2016, US President Barack Obama said: « Even if we achieve all the goals. we will only reach part of where we need to go. He also said that « this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change. It will help other countries reduce their emissions over time and set bolder targets as technology advances, all within a robust transparency system that allows each country to assess the progress of all other nations.
[ 27]  These transparency and accountability provisions are similar to those in other international agreements. While the system does not involve financial sanctions, the requirements are aimed at easily tracking each nation`s progress and fostering a sense of global peer pressure, discouraging any hesitation between countries that might consider this. An Introduction to Paris C2ES answers questions about the discussions leading up to the Paris Climate Agreement, how the agreement works, important legal issues, the status of the agreement and the next steps. In addition, the agreement introduces a new mechanism to « facilitate implementation and promote compliance ». This « non-adversarial » committee of experts will try to help countries that are lagging behind in their commitments to get back on track. There are no penalties for non-compliance. On June 1, 2017, President Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. In response, other Governments strongly reaffirmed their commitment to the agreement.
U.S. cities, states, and other nonstate actors have also reaffirmed their support for the agreement and pledged to step up their climate efforts. The United States officially began its withdrawal from the agreement on November 4, 2019; the withdrawal entered into force on 4 November 2020. President-elect Biden has promised to join the Paris Agreement as soon as he takes office. The Paris Agreement has a « bottom-up » structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are « top-down » and are characterized by internationally defined norms and goals that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets commitment-related targets with the force of law, the Paris Agreement, which emphasizes consensus-building, achieves voluntary and nationally defined targets.  Specific climate goals are therefore promoted politically and are not legally linked. Only the processes that govern the preparation of reports and the consideration of these objectives are prescribed by international law.
This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – since there are no legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is considered an « executive agreement rather than a treaty. » Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty received Senate approval, this new agreement does not need new congressional legislation to enter into force.  Currently, 197 countries – all countries in the world, the last signatory being war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. Of these, 179 have solidified their climate proposals with formal approval – including the US for now. The only major emitting countries that have not yet officially joined the deal are Russia, Turkey and Iran. While the enhanced transparency framework is universal, as is the global stocktaking that will take place every 5 years, the framework aims to provide « integrated flexibility » to distinguish the capacities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The agreement takes into account the different situations of certain countries and notes in particular that the technical expertise of each country takes into account the specific reporting capacities of that country.  The agreement also develops a transparency capacity building initiative to help developing countries put in place the institutions and procedures necessary to comply with the transparency framework.  As explained in this C2ES submission, U.S. participation in the Paris Agreement can only be decided by the President without seeking the advice and consent of the Senate, in part because he is drafting an existing treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. If Biden is president, he would have enough authority to join him as an « executive deal. » Both the EU and its Member States are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. The notice period may take place no earlier than three years after the entry into force of the Agreement for the country.
The revocation shall take effect one year after notification to the depositary. Alternatively, the agreement stipulates that withdrawal from the UNFCCC, under which the Paris Agreement was adopted, would also remove the state from the Paris Agreement. The conditions for exiting the UNFCCC are the same as for the Paris Agreement. The agreement does not contain any provisions in case of non-compliance. The Paris Agreement provides a sustainable framework that guides global efforts for decades to come. The goal is to create a continuous cycle that keeps pressure on countries to increase their ambitions over time. In order to promote growing ambitions, the agreement provides for two interconnected processes, each taking place over a five-year cycle. The first process is a « global stocktaking » to assess collective progress towards the long-term goals of the agreement. The parties will then submit new NDCs « shaped by the results of the global inventory ».
Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as sanctions for non-compliance) only for developed countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to do their part and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, greater flexibility is built into the Paris Agreement: the commitments that countries should make are not formulated differently, countries can voluntarily set their emission targets (NDCs) and countries are not subject to any penalty if they do not meet the proposed targets. .